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Year : 2010  |  Volume : 5  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 68-71

Bilateral proptosis and bitemporal swelling: A rare manifestation of acute myeloid leukemia

1 Department of Neurosurgery, Sanjay Gandhi Postgraduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow - 226 014, India
2 Department of Pathology, Sanjay Gandhi Postgraduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow - 226 014, India

Correspondence Address:
Sanjay Behari
Department of Neurosurgery, Sanjay Gandhi Postgraduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Rae Bareli Road, Lucknow - 226 014
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/1817-1745.66687

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Background: In Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML), malignant clones of immature myeloid cells (primarily blasts) proliferate, replace bone marrow, circulate in blood and invade other tissues. The unique presentation of bilateral proptosis and bilateral temporal swelling in AML is being reported. Case Report: A 6-year-old girl presented with low-grade fever, progressively increasing bitemporal swelling and bilateral proptosis. Contrast Enhanced Computed Tomographic (CECT) images revealed enhancing infiltrates occupying the lateral orbital wall, causing proptosis. The infiltrate extended toward the bilateral temporal fossae beneath the temporalis muscle and extradurally beneath the frontal and temporal bones. A high total leucocytic count with immature and deformed cells and, Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology (FNAC) from the temporal swelling, the bone marrow aspirate and biopsy showing leukemic blast cells confirmed the diagnosis of AML. Chemotherapy brought about remission of the disease. Conclusions: To the best of the authors' knowledge, simultaneous presence of both bilateral proptosis and bitemporal swellings have not been previously reported in AML. A peripheral blood smear with bone marrow aspirate and biopsy help in the early detection of AML. Institution of early intervention in this potentially fatal disease is often associated with gratifying survival rates.


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