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Year : 2019  |  Volume : 14  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 70-75

Electroneurography and advanced neuroimaging profile in pediatric-onset metachromatic leukodystrophy

1 Department of Neurology, Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology, Trivandrum, Kerala, India
2 Department of Imaging Sciences and Intervention Radiology, Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology, Trivandrum, Kerala, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Soumya Sundaram
Department of Neurology, Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology, Trivandrum 695011, Kerala.
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/jpn.JPN_155_18

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Context: Metachromatic leukodystrophy (MLD) is a rare autosomal-recessive disorder characterized by demyelination of central and peripheral nervous system. There is scarcity of literature on the electrophysiological aspects of peripheral nerves and the advanced neuroimaging findings in MLD. Aim: The aim was to study the nerve conduction parameters and advanced neuroimaging findings in patients with MLD. Materials and Methods: This study is a retrospective analysis conducted, between 2005 and 2016, of 12 patients who had biochemical, histopathological, or genetic confirmation of MLD and disease onset before 18 years of age. The clinical, electroneurography, and the advanced neuroimaging findings were reviewed and analyzed. Statistical Analysis: The data were presented as percentages or mean ± standard deviation as defined appropriate for qualitative and quantitative variables. Results: Mean age of onset was 4.84 (±4.60) years and seven patients were males. Eight patients had juvenile MLD and four had late infantile MLD. Clinical presentation of psychomotor regression was more common in infantile MLD (75%), whereas gait difficulty (62.5%) and cognitive impairment (37.5%) were more frequent in juvenile MLD. Nerve conduction study (NCS) revealed diffuse demyelinating sensorimotor peripheral neuropathy in 9 (75%) patients. One patient had a rare presentation with conduction blocks in multiple nerves with contrast enhancement of cauda equina. Diffusion restriction involving periventricular and central white matter was seen in five patients and bilateral globus pallidi blooming was noted in three patients. Conclusion: This study highlights the utility of NCS and advanced magnetic resonance imaging sequences in the diagnosis of MLD.


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