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Year : 2021  |  Volume : 16  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 11-16

Study of Neurodevelopmental Outcome in Patients with Non-tumoral Hydrocephalus with Shunt Surgery Done in Infancy

1 Department of Paediatrics, Bai Jerbai Wadia Hospital for Children, Acharya Donde Marg, Parel, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India
2 Department of Paediatric Neurology, Bai Jerbai Wadia Hospital for Children, Acharya Donde Marg, Parel, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India
3 Department of Paediatric Neurosurgery, Bai Jerbai Wadia Hospital for Children, Acharya Donde Marg, Parel, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Sandeep Garg
Department of Pediatrics, Bhaktivedanta Hospital and Research Institute, Mira Road, Thane 401107, Maharashtra.
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/jpn.JPN_37_20

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Background: Hydrocephalus (HC) is a common neurological disorder presenting in infancy, with a myriad of etiologies requiring early neurosurgical intervention. Objective: To study neurodevelopmental outcome in patients with HC with shunt surgery done in infancy. Materials and Methods: This was an observational retrospective cohort study of 50 pediatric patients (2 years to 16 years of age). These patients were diagnosed with HC and were operated on with ventriculo-peritoneal shunt (VP shunt) insertion in infancy (did not include patients with brain tumors) and then later following in the neurology outpatient department (OPD). Clinical records and neurodevelopmental assessment (intelligence quotient [IQ]/development quotient [DQ] and vision and hearing assessment) were reviewed. Results: Only 50% of the patients with congenital HC were diagnosed at birth, which included patients who had been diagnosed antenatally and they had lesser complications and better intellectual outcome (P = 0.12), compared with those who presented later with HC. Patient-related factors such as etiology of HC, antenatal diagnosis, and requirement of shunt revisions had poor correlation with neurodevelopmental outcome. Patients with late postoperative complications had significantly poor neurodevelopmental outcome (P ≤ 0.001). Patients with post-meningitis HC required a significantly higher number of shunt revisions than patients with other causes (P = 0.04). Conclusion: Better neurodevelopmental outcome depends on early diagnosis and early referral for the management than the cause of HC. Regular head circumference monitoring is the most feasible and sensitive screening tool for early pickup. Larger studies are needed for accurate prognostication.


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