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 ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2021  |  Volume : 16  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 194-198

Anti-NMDAR encephalitis presenting as stroke-like episodes in children: A case series from a tertiary care referral centre from Southern India


1 Department of Pediatric Neurology, Indira Gandhi Institute of Child Health, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India
2 Department of Paediatrics, Indira Gandhi Institute of Child Health, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Vykuntaraju K Gowda
Department of Pediatric Neurology, Indira Gandhi Institute of Child Health, Near NIMHANS, Bengaluru 560029, Karnataka
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/jpn.JPN_80_20

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Background: Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (anti-NMDAR) encephalitis is one of the common causes of treatable encephalitis in children characterized by severe memory deficit, speech disturbances, seizures, autonomic dysfunction, and movement disorders. Hemiparesis/stroke-like episode is not a usual presenting complaint of NMDAR encephalitis. The objective of this study was to report confirmed cases of seropositive anti-NMDAR encephalitis in children who presented with hemiparesis/stroke-like episodes. Materials and Methods: Retrospective review of charts of patients with a diagnosis of NMDAR encephalitis was performed at the pediatric neurology department attached to a tertiary care hospital for 6 years from March 2014 to February 2020. Only those case records with NMDAR seropositivity in the cerebrospinal fluid were collected and those who presented with stroke-like episode/hemiparesis were retrieved separately and the data were extracted in a predesigned proforma and analyzed. Results: Six children of 24 seropositive anti-NMDAR encephalitis presented with hemiparesis/stroke-like episode. All the six patients presented with hemiparesis, behavioral changes, and regression of speech. Three children had seizures and one child had Epilepsia partialis continua. Two children had dystonia and choreoathetosis. Methylprednisolone followed by oral steroids were administered in all patients. Cases 1, 2, and 4 made a full recovery within 7 days, but cases 3, 5, and 6 showed improvement after 20 days following additional IVIG. Four children have cognitive decline and behavioral problems. Case 6 had relapse and recovered with rituximab. Conclusion: Anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis which is a potentially treatable disease should be considered in the differential diagnosis when a child presents with hemiparesis/stroke-like episode.






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