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Year : 2021  |  Volume : 16  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 344-346

Herpes simplex virus-2 encephalitis complicated with multiple cranial neuritis and dysautonomia

Department of Paediatrics, University of Colombo Colombo 7, Colombo, Sri Lanka

Correspondence Address:
Prof. Jithangi Wanigasinghe
Department of Paediatrics, University of Colombo Colombo 7
Sri Lanka
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/jpn.JPN_239_20

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Introduction: Herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) is mainly caused by herpes simplex virus-1 infection (HSV-1). Herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2) infection is rare except in neonates or the immune-compromised. Cranial neuritis is rarely reported in association with HSE. This case study in an eleven-month-old followed by a literature review on cranial neuritis in HSE in children is presented due to the rarity of both situations. Case Report: An eleven-month old otherwise healthy infant presented with encephalitis due to HSV-2 infection which was complicated with dysautonomia manifesting as blood pressure fluctuations and tachycardia, and cranial neuritis manifesting as unilateral ptosis and palatal palsy. The clinical presentation of brain stem encephalitis was confirmed by the Magnetic Resonance Imaging findings of hyperintense foci and contrast enhancement in the medulla oblongata. Following treatment with acyclovir, he made a complete recovery. He did not have any clinical or laboratorial evidence suggestive of immune deficiency. Conclusion: HSV-2 infection can occur beyond the neonatal age group even in the absence of immune compromise. The brainstem encephalitis manifesting as cranial neuritis and autonomic dysfunction made a complete recovery.


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